Skip to main content
Version: 4.xx.xx

3. Create a data provider from scratch

Introduction​

The standards and usage of APIs can vary significantly, so it is possible that refine's built-in data providers may not be suitable for your needs. If that is the case, you will need to develop your own data provider.

Data providers function like an adapter system infrastructure, communicating with the REST, GraphQL, RPC and SOAP based APIs. Libraries like fetch, axios and Apollo-Client can be used for this communication.

We will begin developing our data provider by creating a file and adding additional methods to it as we proceed. We will use axios as our HTTP client in this tutorial. It will allow us to make efficient and reliable HTTP requests to our server.

INFORMATION

axios also provides interceptors, which are methods that trigger before the main method. They also provide benefits such as centralized error handling, modifying request or response data and showing global loading indicators.

To get started, install axios in your project.

npm install axios@0.26

Using the stringify library will allow us to convert the query parameters into a string format. This can be useful when we need to pass query parameters as part of an HTTP request.

npm install query-string@7

After that, create the following file.

src/data-provider.ts
import { DataProvider } from "@refinedev/core";
import { stringify } from "query-string";

export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
// Methods
});

Error Handling​

When the API returns an error, you need to extend refine from HttpError to handle it. To transform the error from the response before axios returns the response to your code, you can use the axios interceptor.

To do this, create an axiosInstance in a utility file, define an interceptor to handle errors, and then export it.

src/data-provider.ts
import axios from "axios";
import { DataProvider, HttpError } from "@refinedev/core";
import { stringify } from "query-string";

// Error handling with axios interceptors
const axiosInstance = axios.create();

axiosInstance.interceptors.response.use(
(response) => {
return response;
},
(error) => {
const customError: HttpError = {
...error,
message: error.response?.data?.message,
statusCode: error.response?.status,
};

return Promise.reject(customError);
},
);

export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
// Methods
});

Methods​

We will now add the methods the data provider needs to implement, which are:

getList​

The getList method is used to get a list of resources with sorting, filtering and pagination features. It takes resource, sorters, pagination and filters as parameters and returns data and total.

Let's assume the API we want to implement is as follows:

[GET] https://api.fake-rest.refine.dev/posts

HTTP/2 200
Content-Type: application/json
x-total-count: 1000
access-control-expose-headers: X-Total-Count

[
{
"id": 930,
"title": "Rerum id laborum architecto et rerum earum.",
"slug": "et-voluptas-corporis",
"category": {
"id": 4
}
"status": "draft",
},
{
"id": 892,
"title": "Architecto officiis sint voluptatem modi.",
"slug": "iusto-est-corrupti",
"category": {
"id": 1
},
"status": "rejected",
}
...
]

First, we need to return the data and the total number of records using the resource parameter.

The resource parameter is the name of the resource that we want to get the data from. It passes by the resource parameter in hooks. In our case, it is posts.

src/data-provider.ts
export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
// ...
getList: async ({ resource }) => {
const url = `${apiUrl}/${resource}`;

const { data, headers } = await axiosInstance.get(url);

const total = +headers["x-total-count"];

return {
data,
total,
};
},
// ...
});

We can then add the pagination feature. For this, the API takes the following parameters.

[GET] https://api.fake-rest.refine.dev/posts?_limit=10&_page=2

refine uses the pagination parameter for pagination. For this parameter, current refers to the page number, and pageSize refers to the number of records on each page.

{
current: 1,
pageSize: 10,
}
src/data-provider.ts
export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
// ...
getList: async ({ resource, pagination }) => {
const url = `${apiUrl}/${resource}`;

const { current = 1, pageSize = 10 } = pagination ?? {};

const query: {
_start?: number;
_end?: number;
} = {
_start: (current - 1) * pageSize,
_end: current * pageSize,
};

const { data, headers } = await axiosInstance.get(`${url}?${stringify(query)}`);

const total = +headers["x-total-count"];

return {
data,
total,
};
},
// ...
});

Now let's add the sorting feature. The API expects the following parameters for sorting:

[GET] https://api.fake-rest.refine.dev/posts?_limit=10&_page=2&_sort=id&_order=desc

refine uses the sorters parameter for sorting. This parameter includes the field and order values. Supports multiple field sorting. CrudSort[] type, it comes in the data provider as follows.

[
{
field: "id",
order: "desc",
},
]
src/data-provider.ts
getList: async ({ resource, pagination, sorters }) => {
const url = `${apiUrl}/${resource}`;

const { current = 1, pageSize = 10 } = pagination ?? {};

const query: {
_start?: number;
_end?: number;
_sort?: string;
_order?: string;
} = {
_start: (current - 1) * pageSize,
_end: current * pageSize,
};

if (sorters && sorters.length > 0) {
query._sort = sorters[0].field;
query._order = sorters[0].order;
}

const { data, headers } = await axiosInstance.get(
`${url}?${stringify(query)}`,
);

const total = +headers["x-total-count"];

return {
data,
total,
};
},

Now let's add the filtering feature. The API expects the following parameters for filtering:


[GET] https://api.fake-rest.refine.dev/posts?_limit=10&_page=2&_sort=id&_order=desc&title_like

refine uses the filters parameter for filtering. This parameter contains the field, operator and value values with the CrudFilters [] type.

[
{
field: "status"
operator: "eq"
value: "published"
},
{
field: "title"
operator: "contains"
value: "Hello"
},
]

The operator data comes with the CrudOperators type and needs to be mapped to the API. For this, the following mapOperator function needs to be written:

// Map refine operators to API operators
const mapOperator = (operator: CrudOperators): string => {
switch (operator) {
case "ne":
case "gte":
case "lte":
return `_${operator}`;
case "contains":
return "_like";
case "eq":
default:
return "";
}
};
src/data-provider.ts
const generateFilters = (filters?: CrudFilters) => {
const queryFilters: { [key: string]: string } = {};

filters?.map((filter): void => {
if ("field" in filter) {
const { field, operator, value } = filter;
const mappedOperator = mapOperator(operator);
queryFilters[`${field}${mappedOperator}`] = value;
}
});

return queryFilters;
};

getList: async ({ resource, pagination, sorters, filters }) => {
const url = `${apiUrl}/${resource}`;

const { current = 1, pageSize = 10 } = pagination ?? {};

const query: {
_start?: number;
_end?: number;
_sort?: string;
_order?: string;
} = {
_start: (current - 1) * pageSize,
_end: current * pageSize,
};

if (sorters && sorters.length > 0) {
query._sort = sorters[0].field;
query._order = sorters[0].order;
}

const queryFilters = generateFilters(filters);

const { data, headers } = await axiosInstance.get(
`${url}?${stringify(query)}&${stringify(queryFilters)}`
);

const total = +headers["x-total-count"];

return {
data,
total,
};
},
INFORMATION

The conditional filters can also be made using and and or. For example:

[
{
operator: "or",
value: [
{
operator: "and"
value: [
{
field: "title"
operator: "contain"
value: "Hello"
},
{
field: "age"
operator: "gte"
value: "18"
},
]
},
{
operator: "and"
value: [
{
field: "title"
operator: "contain"
value: "Hello"
},
{
field: "age"
operator: "lte"
value: "18"
},
]
}
]
}
]

Parameter Types:

NameType
resourcestring
pagination?Pagination
sorters?CrudSorting
filters?CrudFilters

refine will consume the getList method using the useList or useInfiniteList data hook.

import { useList } from "@refinedev/core";

const { data } = useList({
resource: "posts",
sorters: [
{
field: "id",
order: "desc",
},
],
filters: [
{
field: "title",
operator: "contains",
value: "hello",
},
],
});

Refer to the useList documentation for more information. β†’

create​

The create method creates a new record with the resource and variables parameters.

src/data-provider.ts
export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
// ...
create: async ({ resource, variables }) => {
const url = `${apiUrl}/${resource}`;

const { data } = await axiosInstance.post(url, variables);

return {
data,
};
},
// ...
});

Parameter Types

NameTypeDefault
resourcestring
variablesTVariables{}
NOTE

TVariables is a user defined type which can be passed to useCreate to type variables


refine will consume the create method using the useCreate data hook.

import { useCreate } from "@refinedev/core";

const { mutate } = useCreate();

mutate({
resource: "posts",
values: {
title: "New Post",
},
});

Refer to the useCreate documentation for more information. β†’

update​

The update method updates the record with the resource, id and variables parameters.

src/data-provider.ts
export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
// ...
update: async ({ resource, id, variables }) => {
const url = `${apiUrl}/${resource}/${id}`;

const { data } = await axiosInstance.patch(url, variables);

return {
data,
};
},
// ...
});

Parameter Types:

NameTypeDefault
resourcestring
idBaseKey
variablesTVariables{}
NOTE

TVariables is a user defined type which can be passed to useUpdate to type variables


refine will consume the update method using the useUpdate data hook.

import { useUpdate } from "@refinedev/core";

const { mutate } = useUpdate();

mutate({
resource: "posts",
id: 2,
values: { title: "New Post Title" },
});

Refer to the useUpdate documentation for more information. β†’

deleteOne​

The deleteOne method delete the record with the resource and id parameters.

src/data-provider.ts
export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
// ...
deleteOne: async ({ resource, id, variables }) => {
const url = `${apiUrl}/${resource}/${id}`;

const { data } = await axiosInstance.delete(url, {
data: variables,
});

return {
data,
};
},
// ...
});

Parameter Types:

NameTypeDefault
resourcestring
idBaseKey
variablesTVariables[]{}
NOTE

TVariables is a user defined type which can be passed to useDelete to type variables


refine will consume the deleteOne method using the useDelete data hook.

import { useDelete } from "@refinedev/core";

const { mutate } = useDelete();

mutate({ resource: "posts", id: 2 });

Refer to the useDelete documentation for more information. β†’

getOne​

The getOne method gets the record with the resource and id parameters.

src/data-provider.ts
export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
// ...
getOne: async ({ resource, id }) => {
const url = `${apiUrl}/${resource}/${id}`;

const { data } = await axiosInstance.get(url);

return {
data,
};
},
// ...
});

Parameter Types:

NameTypeDefault
resourcestring
idBaseKey

refine will consume the getOne method using the useOne data hook.

import { useOne } from "@refinedev/core";

const { data } = useOne({ resource: "posts", id: 1 });

Refer to the useOne documentation for more information. β†’


getApiUrl​

The getApiUrl method returns the apiUrl value.

src/data-provider.ts
import { DataProvider } from "@refinedev/core";

export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
getApiUrl: () => apiUrl,
// ...
});

refine will consume the getApiUrl method using the useApiUrl data hook.

import { useApiUrl } from "@refinedev/core";

const { data } = useApiUrl();

Refer to the useApiUrl documentation for more information. β†’

custom​

An optional method named custom can be added to handle requests with custom parameters like the URL or CRUD methods and configurations. It's useful if you have non-standard REST API endpoints or want to make a connection with external resources.

dataProvider.ts
export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
// ...
custom: async ({ url, method, filters, sorters, payload, query, headers }) => {
let requestUrl = `${url}?`;

if (sorters && sorters.length > 0) {
const sortQuery = {
_sort: sorters[0].field,
_order: sorters[0].order,
};
requestUrl = `${requestUrl}&${stringify(sortQuery)}`;
}

if (filters) {
const filterQuery = generateFilters(filters);
requestUrl = `${requestUrl}&${stringify(filterQuery)}`;
}

if (query) {
requestUrl = `${requestUrl}&${stringify(query)}`;
}

let axiosResponse;
switch (method) {
case "put":
case "post":
case "patch":
axiosResponse = await axiosInstance[method](url, payload, {
headers,
});
break;
case "delete":
axiosResponse = await axiosInstance.delete(url, {
data: payload,
headers: headers,
});
break;
default:
axiosResponse = await axiosInstance.get(requestUrl, {
headers,
});
break;
}

const { data } = axiosResponse;

return { data };
},
// ...
});

Parameter Types

NameType
urlstring
methodget, delete, head, options, post, put, patch
sorters?CrudSorting;
filters?CrudFilters;
payload?{}
query?{}
headers?{}

refine will consume the custom method using the useCustom data hook.

import { useCustom, useApiUrl } from "@refinedev/core";

const { data, isLoading } = useCustom({
url: `${apiURL}/posts-unique-check`,
method: "get",
config: {
query: {
title: "Foo bar",
},
},
});

Refer to the useCustom documentation for more information. β†’

Bulk Actions​

Bulk actions are actions that can be performed on multiple items at once to improve speed and efficiency. They are commonly used in admin panels. They can be used for data import and export, and are also atomic, meaning that they are treated as a single unit.

If your API supports bulk actions, you can implement them in your data provider.

getMany​

The getMany method gets the records with the resource and ids parameters. This method is optional, and refine will use the getOne method to handle multiple requests if you don't implement it.

src/data-provider.ts
export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
// ...
getMany: async ({ resource, ids }) => {
const { data } = await axiosInstance.get(`${apiUrl}/${resource}?${stringify({ id: ids })}`);

return {
data,
};
},
// ...
});

Parameter Types:

NameTypeDefault
resourcestring
ids[BaseKey]

refine will consume the getMany method using the useMany data hook.

import { useMany } from "@refinedev/core";

const { data } = useMany({ resource: "posts", ids: [1, 2] });

Refer to the useMany documentation for more information. β†’

createMany​

This method allows us to create multiple items in a resource. This method is optional, and refine will use the create method to handle multiple requests if you don't implement it.

src/data-provider.ts
export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
// ...
createMany: async ({ resource, variables }) => {
const url = `${apiUrl}/${resource}/bulk`;
const { data } = await axiosInstance.post(url, { values: variables });

return {
data,
};
},
// ...
});

Parameter Types:

NameTypeDefault
resourcestring
variablesTVariables[]{}
NOTE

TVariables is a user defined type which can be passed to useCreateMany to type variables


refine will consume the createMany method using the useCreateMany data hook.

import { useCreateMany } from "@refinedev/core";

const { mutate } = useCreateMany();

mutate({
resource: "posts",
values: [
{
title: "New Post",
},
{
title: "Another New Post",
},
],
});

Refer to the useCreateMany documentation for more information. β†’

deleteMany​

This method allows us to delete multiple items in a resource. This method is optional, and refine will use the deleteOne method to handle multiple requests if you don't implement it.

src/data-provider.ts
export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
// ...
deleteMany: async ({ resource, ids }) => {
const url = `${apiUrl}/${resource}/bulk?ids=${ids.join(",")}`;
const { data } = await axiosInstance.delete(url);

return {
data,
};
},
// ...
});

Parameter Types:

NameTypeDefault
resourcestring
ids[BaseKey]
variablesTVariables[]{}
NOTE

TVariables is a user defined type which can be passed to useDeleteMany to type variables


refine will consume the deleteMany method using the useDeleteMany data hook.

import { useDeleteMany } from "@refinedev/core";

const { mutate } = useDeleteMany();

mutate({
resource: "posts",
ids: [2, 3],
});

Refer to the useDeleteMany documentation for more information. β†’

updateMany​

This method allows us to update multiple items in a resource. This method is optional, and refine will use the update method to handle multiple requests if you don't implement it.

src/data-provider.ts
export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
// ...
updateMany: async ({ resource, ids, variables }) => {
const url = `${apiUrl}/${resource}/bulk`;
const { data } = await axiosInstance.patch(url, { ids, variables });

return {
data,
};
},
// ...
});

refine will consume the updateMany method using the useUpdateMany data hook.

import { useUpdateMany } from "@refinedev/core";

const { mutate } = useUpdateMany();

mutate({
resource: "posts",
ids: [1, 2],
values: { status: "draft" },
});

Refer to the useUpdateMany documentation for more information. β†’

meta usage​

meta is a special property that can be used to pass additional information to data provider methods for the following purposes:

  • Customizing the data provider methods for specific use cases.
  • Generating GraphQL queries using plain JavaScript Objects (JSON).

Refer to the meta section of the General Concepts documentation for more information β†’

For example, let's say that we want to pass a custom header to the getOne method. We can do this by passing the meta parameter to the useOne data hook.

post/edit.tsx
import { useOne } from "@refinedev/core";

useOne({
resource: "post",
id: "1",
meta: {
headers: {
"x-custom-header": "hello world",
},
},
});

Now, we can access the meta parameter in the getOne method of the data provider.

src/data-provider.ts
import { DataProvider } from "@refinedev/core";

export const dataProvider = (apiUrl: string): DataProvider => ({
// ...
getOne: async ({ resource, id, variables, meta }) => {
const { headers } = meta;
const url = `${apiUrl}/${resource}/${id}`;

axiosInstance.defaults.headers = {
...headers,
};

const { data } = await axiosInstance.get(url, variables);

return {
data,
};
},
// ...
});
TIP

The meta parameter can be used in all data, form, and table hooks.


Checklist